How Can Damage of the Brain in Each of the Following Structures Affect One’s Mental Processes and Behavior?
Research has demonstrated the importance of understanding brain disorders as it affects one’s mental processes and behavior. In particular, studies revealed that brain damage may occur due to a wide range of causes, including illnesses, head injuries, complex chemical imbalances, bacterial diseases, and changes associated with aging. These broad categories of influence can lead to very specific or very generalized affective disorders depending on the region damaged.
The medulla oblongata, usually just called the medulla, contains a number of vital centers for regulating heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. It also contains the reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccoughing, and swallowing (Mader 134). Destruction of the medulla causes instant death (Carlson 302).
The reticular formation receives sensory information by means of various pathways and projects axons to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord. It plays a role in sleep and arousal, attention, muscle tonus, movement, and various vital reflexes (Mader 137). Damage to reticular formation interferes with normal arousal and produces coma by interfering with this mechanism (Carlson 304)….