The question of sexuality is on that needs that needs thorough analysis in order to determine the implication brought about by the depiction of sex and sexuality through the use of print media. The depiction of human sexuality can be separated into two parts, male and female sexuality. These two forms vary according to the differences in the gender of the persons involved.
The main objective of this paper is to study, keenly, the research methods used in two literatures, and to provide an analysis of the literatures on sexual imagery. The two literatures were compiled by different people to show how various forms of male and female sexuality are constructed in different publications.
The two articles are similar because they both talk about the depiction of women in various forms of print advertisements especially in magazines. However, as Sexuality focuses mostly on the sexuality and people’s view of sex, as well as, their feelings and preferences in sex, The European Journal of Marketing, focuses mostly on the picture of women that is painted representing women as either sexual objects or feminine sexual goddesses. The European Journal of Marketing also focuses on the position of women and their sex roles in the community. In the article, the various sex roles that women play have been reviewed. It has also compared the power of women, in sex, over men, and that of men over women as well.
*Fravid and Braun (2006) what was the Benefits of this approach/ disadvantages of the content analysis they conducted in the Cosmo Magazine and link to sexuality?
In this analysis, Braun focussed mainly on two women magazines, which are popular for providing messages related to sex, gender and sexuality. To get a clear impression of the question in topic, six issues of two magazines, Cosmopolitan and Cleo were analyzed. These two were then reviewed in depth to get and understanding of human sexuality.
The key benefit of this approach was that it provided the identity of the two accounts for male and female sexuality. The first one is that men are posed as having stronger sex need, and for this reason, they get aroused easily and get satisfied easily too. Women on the other side are deemed as needing. The insinuation here is that they need to develop sex skills in order to satisfy their men.
It is also found that the determinant that accounts for performance pleasure and ego in the men is the concern they have about women. Men are sensitive and get disturbed about their sexual performance, if they think that they have certain inadequacies.
Women’s magazines are abundantly filled with advice that women can heed to in order to improve their sexual practice, as such, these magazines are often and popularly used to carry out analysis foe feminist takes about sex and sexuality (Fravid and Braun (2006)).
The disadvantages of the content analysis that was carried out is that it tended to lean more on the sexuality pleasures and preferences of different people and ignored a whole lot of other issues that affect the sexuality of different individuals.
To get the required information, a search strategy was employed where items in the two magazines were studied to provide information regarding the sexuality of women. To make the study comprehensive, six issues of each magazine were used to acquire information (Fravid and Braun (2006)).
Criteria for selection:
The magazines that were used had also been studied for over three decades to ensure that, the desired sexuality issues are covered fully in the chosen magazines. The Cosmo magazines is described as being egalitarian and having emancipated sex, so that the female figures appearing in the magazine are not viewed as objects of sex. It has created a fun and fearless female picture that represents a desirable feminine sexuality.
Extraction of data:
The two magazines that were used are similar in terms of content and the scope they cover. They also target the same audience, which are young ladies. The content that is covered is deemed as being sexually liberating and covering topics that affect men as well. Cosmo and Cleo magazines were also picked because of their depiction of male sexuality which also affects, females to a large extent.
Is it a Quantitative/ Qualitative:
The kind of data covered in the magazines can be described as being qualitative, because it focuses on the intensity and value of sexuality, not the numbers of people opposed to or for the information. Sex is talked about as being either bad or good and not how much (Fravid and Braun (2006)).
What are the Limitations:
The limitation of the magazines in the research is that they only cover a small section of sexuality from all other magazines issues that talk about the same. They mostly dwell on how males and females prefer sex and what they like. Other factors affecting sexuality are not discussed in detail.
Cosmo and Cleo, as much as they do not cover all aspects of sexuality, cover to a large extent the main issues that affect the sexuality of both sexes. They are focussed on the deeper view of sex that people have, other than just viewing sex in a general manner.
Using literatures from Fravid and Braun (2006) and Plakoyiannaki and Zoto (2009) discuss in depth, compare and provide a
critical analysis of the research methods used. The aim is use the literatures to link and appreciate and outline while
critically analysing the literature on sexual imagery.
Also, address that Fravid and Braun states that sexual desires states with girls as young as 14 years old.
As much as the two magazines used by…are meant to target women above the age of 18, it was also realized that girls as young as 14 read these magazines. This insinuates that they too could be sexually active that’s why they also want to get information about sex.
*Plakoyiannaki and Zoto (2009) recognise reality in social understanding, but for whom?
The research carried out on this magazine focuses mainly on females. It is concerned with the appearance of females on sexual adverts, magazines and portraits. It has been taken by many that the use of female figures in many advertisements presents them as sexual objects (Plakoyiannaki and Zoto (2009)).
Also, provide fact and figures of STI and pregnancy rate emerging within the UK.
Advertising using human figures to exhibit certain characteristics like posture, expression and gestures, brings out questions in different people concerning the norms and beliefs of different communities. In some cases, they are taken as a rude gesture that is against some beliefs, while in other cases, they are seen as reshaping the people’s norms and beliefs to appreciate the good life that they have.
Background for the article
The magazine used in this research article, The European Journal of Marketing, bases some of its finding on the use of women’s bodies to advertise or express a view or a feeling. This is referred to as retro-sexism. Retro-sexism, has stirred different feelings in different people. Some take it to be a way of empowering women, while others view it as acting as a backlash against women (Plakoyiannaki and Zoto (2009)).
The objectives of this article were, firstly, to provide evidence on the frequency of female appearances in advertisements, concentrating on British women. The article was also meant to study the role of females in print advertisements in magazines in the UK. It also tries to compare the role females play in these advertisements, and the effective product classes that come out eventually.
Search strategies used in research
The main strategies that were applied in creating this article were the analysis of content in the journal to examine the role of women in advertisements. There is also the illustration of a research that was conducted in USA regarding advertising through magazines and the stereotyping of women in these magazines.
Extraction from data
The information used in the article was obtained from the journal focussing mainly on the depiction of women figures in the advertisements and the effect that these depictions had on the public and the women as well. The article was centred mostly on the area of female stereotypes in the UK, considering the frequency with which they played their roles in the advertisements. Information in the article was also extracted by reviewing the literature on the points that were covered by the journal, that is, the development of research prepositions on the development of prepositions for research (Plakoyiannaki and Zoto (2009)).
What type of research is it? Qualitative or quantitative
The research that was used in this article is quantitative because it has focussed on numbers. It does not just base its findings on the value of advertisements, but also the frequency of these advertisements.
Any limitations to the study
The main limitation in this article is that the stereotyping mode of representing women in the article could result in negative effects to the self-confidence of women, and cause them to undermine their view of the future aspirations they would wish to accomplish. These representations could also end up in negative presentation of the self image and esteem of females.
The article provides the results from various magazines concerning women in their decorative roles to support neo-sexism. It has also increased the bias towards the depiction of women sexually in print advertisements. The article has also shown that the depiction of women sexually, has been embraced by a number of magazines. However, there are still people who are sceptical about this depiction of women as it is interpreted differently by different people. The article also poses male-oriented magazines promoted women in their roles in the advertisements (Plakoyiannaki and Zoto (2009)).
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