Management in Japan, as well as in any other country, reflects its historical features, culture and public psychology. It is directly connected with social and economic setup of the country. Japanese methods of management are radically distinct from European and American. It doesn’t mean that the Japanese operate more effectively. It is possible to tell more likely, that main principles of the Japanese and European management lay in different planes, having a few points of crossing.
The Japanese management is based on collectivism. It uses all moral and psychological levers of influence on the person. First of all, call of duty to collective, which is almost identical to feeling of shame in the Japanese mentality. Considering the fact that Japanese tax system works on getting citizen’s incomes and welfare to some average value, by progressive-fiscal mechanism, welfare stratification in society is minimal, therefore it enables to use feeling of collectivism as effectively as possible.
Japanese method of management differs from European and US methods first of all by its direction: main subject in Japanese management is human resources. Objective that Japanese top-mangers use to face with is to raise operating efficiency over increasing productivity of labor. Meanwhile, European and American management objective is profit maximization, with as low efforts as possible.
We can define such characteristics of Japanese management:
Employment guarantees lead to stability of manpower and reduce employee turnover. Stability serves as incentive for workers and employees, it strengthens corporate community feeling, harmonizes relations between ordinary workers and management. Released from pressing threat of dismissal and having a real opportunity for further promotion, workers receive motivation for strengthening feeling of fellowship with company. Stability gives possibility to increase quantity of managerial resources, on the one hand, and knowingly to direct their vector on the objectives more significant, than discipline maintenance, on the other hand. Japanese Employment guarantees provide system of lifelong hiring – unique occurrence that is doesn’t clear for European mindset.
When all managerial levels and workers start using common information database about firm politics and activity, atmosphere of participation and common responsibility starts to develop, improves interaction and increases productivity. In this respect meetings where engineers and administrative workers take part, bring in essential results. Japanese management also tries to create common base of understanding of corporate values for company’s workers such as qualitative service priority, cooperation between workers and administration, cooperation and interaction of departments. Management aspires to cultivate and maintain corporate values at all levels.
Japanese company’s presidents speak about necessity of quality assurance more often. While managing manufacture process their main care – getting accurate data about quality. Personal care of the head consists of fastening efforts over quality control, and as a result, running his area of manufacture with highest quality
Data gathering and its systematic applying to increase economic efficiency of manufacture, qualitative characteristics of manufacture and qualitative characteristics of production is given special sense. Every month head of the company checks income items, volume of manufacture, quality and gross receipt, to find out if results are coincided with defined values and to reveal future problems on early stages of their appearance.
To cope with difficulties and to assist in solving problems in order of their appearance Japanese often allocate management personnel right in working area. While problems are solving little innovations are added and it leads to accumulating extra novelties. In Japan to assist additional innovations the system of innovative offers and groups of quality is widely used.
Cleanness and order on manufacture is one of the essential factors that make Japanese goods of high quality. Directors set such order that helps increase productivity and quality of work.
In general Japanese management is characterized by emphasis on improvement of human relations: coordination, collectivism, high moral qualities of workers and employees, harmonization of relations in corporation between workers and management.
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