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Sociology Essay Example

Society has different norms and culture; it varies from one community to the other based on their practices and beliefs (Hess, 1988).  Its standards dictate on how people act, speak and think. It molds individual on how he become in his future life. His individuality is the mirror of his society. What he is; is exactly what his society is all about. A person who belongs to a conservative society will bear and possess a traditional attitude also. His way of thinking always has something to do with his community. He always makes a consideration of how and what people think about him. People belong to a certain community or groups are expected to behave and think according to what the social practices are. A female teenager, for example, is said to be at home before 9 o’clock in the evening, she must not see roaming around alone at night.

Eldest siblings are considered as a role model, she/he must behave accurately that her/his younger sisters/brothers will look up to and subject to follow. A man must marry first his girlfriend before doing any sexual encounter. Female must be married first before she lives to together with her man and has children. Doing so will make them deviant to the society. An individual must maintain her/his good image in accordance to society’s standard where she/he belongs, to avoid to be labeled as deviators by the society and to protect society’s image as a whole. Such practices passed from one generation to the other. It rooted from the older age and passed through their children up to the great-grandchildren. The believed practices and norms existed as the society existed, and people came in to adapt and adjust his community.Being an unmarried pregnant teenager is a taboo and considered deviant to the society.  A teenager is expected to be in school, finished college, have a degree, get a job and get married before she bears a child. Teenagers at their young age are likely to engage things, which are very dependent on their parents. They are less expected to do stuff like what the adult does, like involving with opposite sex. Thus becoming unmarried pregnant at an early age is an issue to the society. It’s an implication that society’s norm is not well implemented to its occupants. Teenager personality and family background will then put into question. The society begins to map out what kind of family does the teenager has. If she is rise properly according to society’s standard because the said taboo won’t take place if she properly cares and if the norms were properly inculcated to teenager’s mind. Being a deviant, society begins to label the individual. …

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Overview of Custom Essay Writing

Custom essay writing is the process where the student attracts the third party to write an essay and pays it for the completed essay. Usually this third party is custom writing service that coordinates and manages writers who write the student’s essay. Sometimes the writers themselves can offer such service and be paid for it. In any case the custom essay writing assumes that student doesn’t participate or do any work in order to complete his or her essay, other writer does this work for client. While the writing process is very complicated task for some students, professional writers don’t have any difficulties in writing any paper on various topics. It is their job, and they are doing it really good, they simply like writing as well as receiving their salaries. When you are …

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Come Little Children

Little children are little cherubs from heaven who lost their way and found themselves trapped in this world of ours. No wonder they are so pure and innocent, so faithful and loving, so forgiving and so divine- they still have something heavenly in them! It’s such a pity that they lose this angelic touch in them as they grow more and more a part of this world. For me, it seems that as they are drawn away from heaven, these little children lose their luster of innocence.

Children are such a source of joy as they bring so much lightness of heart and tenderness of emotions that they lilt like the lines of poetry. Yes, they are cute little verses running on little feet! Wasn’t it Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet laureate of the Victorian Age who in his “Children’s Hour” paid tribute to the “patter of little feet”? Or William Wordsworth who wrote and said that “the child is father to the man”?

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To Have or Not to Have… a Second Baby

The first baby is always a motive of happiness. Even when it has not been carefully planned and it comes by surprise, its arrival is waited by the couple with enormous sentiment. There are no doubts, in most of the cases. In this state of anticipation, there is not thought about the money that will need to be invested from now on in this small person who shortly will become part of the family. The things you will have to renounce to in the near future may start to hit your mind: going out with friends, weekend away, romantic dinners in the light of the candles, or normal day-to-day things like going to the cinema or theater. …

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How to Write a Successful Essay

Successful essay requires specific purpose, core idea or subject, and writing skills. When you are starting to write your essay, define what is you main purpose for writing it.

You will write most effectively when you will be “writing with a purpose.” Inexperienced writers have difficulty writing with a …

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New Media

Defining the new media and their role in American politics is an important, albeit somewhat challenging, task. In this book, we argue that the new media are quantitatively and qualitatively different from the mainstream press. They do not simply represent a variation of the established news media.

The new media have significant potential to educate, facilitate public discourse, and enhance citizen participation. They provide mass audiences with a seemingly boundless array of sources that transcend the time and space constraints of traditional media. In addition, new media technologies easily bypass national and international boundaries, bringing American citizens into with diverse cultures and distant happenings to an extent previously unimaginable. As such, new media have the potential to enhance the public’s understanding and tolerance of different societies….

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Child-Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Can the Development of Osteoporosis be Delayed or Avoided Through Physical Activity?

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), a hematological cancer most-commonly diagnosed in children and young adults, is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and maturation arrest of the lymphoid progenitor cells found in bone marrow (resulting in an excess of malignant cells). ALL is the most frequent childhood malignancy, with 2000-2500 new cases diagnosed in the United States each year and representing almost one-third of all pediatric cancers. Its peak-incidence is found in …

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Holism vs. Mechanism in Defining Totalities

“Science, as ordinarily understood, is concerned with those phenomena revealed through the five senses, particularly tha eyes. From a host of observations on instruments of various sorts, the physicist infers the existence of electrons, atoms and so forth. But each of us has another sort of knowledge of one special part of the universe, of one special phenomenon of the universe, namely himself” (Birch 229).

Much debate has centered around the dichotomy of wholes and parts from as early as Democritus (5th century BCE) and Aristotle (4th century BCE). Democritean and Aristotelian philosophies have each had their favor during parts of history. Aristotle was the earliest systematic biologist and, following an encyclopedic treatment of his personal observations on around 500 different types of animals (Swanson 23), he found as the most striking character of biological phenomena its finalism. He later extended this concept into a teleological philosophy, and although he did eventually introduce the concept of a causal necessity, the main conclusion emerging from his analysis was that by far the most important cause in biological and physical phenomena is the final cause (Montalenti 20). His was the most widely accepted view in the West for many centuries due mainly to Aquinas. Dante, for instance, reproaches Democritus for having attributed the world to the mere work of chance (inf., IV, 131, 136). Although that was not altogether precise, for the medieval Aristotelian it came down to the same thing: how can one attempt to explain the harmony of the world without resorting to final causes? Democritus, in turn, presented the West with a much valued causal interpretation of nature. For Democritus, all things resulted from the movement and interactions between atoms, soul atoms being simply a somewhat more subtle version of the others (Reeves 58).

The debate between Democritean and Aristotelian points of views in science and the philosophy of the sciences centers around the question of whether novelties occur or whether all phenomena can be explained as resulting purely from elementary interactions. Both views stand on weak foundations on their own. ‘Reductionism’, as it is often called, aims at explaining the universe 1) without consorting to a fundamental notion of functionally irreducible units, and 2) by outlining the behavior and interaction between what have been shown to be probabilistic – rather than deterministic – elementary particles.

In response to that view, Polanyi states that “the mechanistic explanation of the universe is a meaningless ideal. Not because of the much invoked Principle of Indeterminacy, which is irrelevant, but because the prediction of all atomic positions in the universe would not answer any question of interest to anybody” (41-42). But ‘holism’ does not have it easy either. It can not cling to intuitive notions (i.e. vitalism) and must make amends with the fact that matter is what there is and what ultimately forms the complexities around us – as well as ourselves.

The question is, do we have the right concept of matter? In 1926 J.C. Smuts called for a reform of the concept of matter, stating that “the acceptance of the view for which the materialists fought so hard means in effect a complete transformation of the simple situation which they envisaged”; since matter is capable of life and consciousness, “[it] is no longer the old matter which was merely the vehicle of motion and energy” (10). This view is akin to Birch’s account of a lecture in which Professor W.E. Agar said “a few thousand million years ago there was primeval chaos, and now, here we are, and I think few people can really sustain a belief that a universe which produced life and man requires no different kind of explanation than would be demanded by a universe which did not do so” (Birch 230).

In 1843, J.S. Mill sought to develop a middle way through what came to be known as ‘emergence’: the idea that material complexity leads to the emergence of novel properties, and that properties belonging to a system’s components may become suppressed at these higher levels of integration. It remains a matter of debate whether emergent properties may have any causal power within a system. William Hasker believes so; he maintains that although mental properties emerge from the brain and are inseparable from it, conscious properties are not logical consequences of any combination of properties and of relations between the material constituents of the brain. He further maintains that a “new individual entity” emerges of a certain functional configuration of the material constituents of the brain and nervous system, endowed with “libertarian freedom” (230).

Perhaps the fact that our knowledge of elemental particles weakened rather than reinforced the Democritean ideal, we find a number of quantum physicists taking seriously the notion of irreducible unity. Schrödinger postulates that “the best possible knowledge of a whole does not necessarily include the best possible knowledge of all its parts, even though they may be entirely separate and therefore virtually capable of being ‘best possibly known,’ i.e., of possessing, each of them, a representative of its own. The lack of knowledge is by no means due to the interaction being insufficiently known — at least not in the way that it could possibly be known more completely — it is due to the interaction itself” (Schrödinger 555). David Bohm, in turn, argues that “all action is in the form of definite and measurable units of energy, momentum and other properties called quanta which cannot be further divided… [Thus,] when particles interact, it is as if they were all connected by indivisible links into a single whole” (90)

It might be, as Laszlo views it, that contemporary science has tacitly abandoned the notion of isolated particulars as its units of investigation, and now concerns itself with “ordered totalities” (Laszlo 2). However, in a world made up of systems within systems, ‘totalities’ are not easily defined. One very good definition of ‘unities’ is given to us by Maturana and Varela under the term ‘autopoiesis’ – self-production or self-creation. Autopoiesis seeks to convey ‘autonomy’ as the central feature of the organization of “living autopoietic machines”, which they define as “a network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components that produces the components which… regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced them; and… constitute it… as a concrete unity” (Maturana and Varela 79).

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Is Racism Wrong?

In Western countries the businesses, the media and the education system go to great lengths to remove ‘racism’ from their infrastructure, and all traces of material that might be construed as racist from their brochures, presentations and classes. It seems that to be tarred with the word constitutes such an ugly branding that people’s main motivation for avoiding it has become fear of condemnation, rather than an active quest for moral justice. Perhaps it would be prudent to discard the stigma for a moment and ask the rather controversial question, ‘Is racism really wrong?’ That is to say, is it racism itself that we should be fighting against? Have we actually forgotten what we are fighting?…

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Our Happiness

Have you ever questioned yourself whether you are happy of not? What does it mean to you? Happiness is a state of inside being of each person and comes from different sources depending on the desires and kind of personality. The scientists all over the world have done good deal of research, philosophers and writers have written thousands of books on this topic in order to describe this state. But the topic is still open to questions and discussions. This fact means that happiness is important and integral part of out life.

During our existence, we as humankind created plenty of origins of happiness such as class, wealth, social position, family, level of intelligence and race. We also cherish and adore a huge variety of things and conditions that permanently bring happiness to us. Such as money, feelings, physical pleasures, relationships with others, sports, music, art cause happiness. The list is as endless as the list of our unpredicted and odd desires, as the list of personalities that exist in our modern globalized society….

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