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Annotated Bibliography on Technology

Annotated Bibliography on Database Forensics:
Data base forensic has various aspects including its process, weaknesses and disadvantages. This research paper aims at explaining the process of data base forensic, its related weaknesses and disadvantages. This is to certify whether the use of database forensics tools will keep the confidentially of the data or not.

In the first instance, data base forensic has a unique process in which it is carried out. This shows that data base process has to be enacted so that facts are investigated and established. Rogers, M. (2003). The role of criminal profiling in the computer forensics process. New York.

The author of this source document tries to disclose to people that there is a significant role in criminal profiling in computer forensic process. This role is most useful in computer forensic process where information of criminals is stored. He clearly and precisely impacts that knowledge into every reader of his work to make the role understood by many individuals. From the source document, we get to know that criminal profiling involves getting all the required data from criminals for proper investigations and establishment of factual information in criminal and civil courts. Criminal profiling serves a critical purpose since it keeps all information of criminals making it easy to track them even if they escape. Criminal profiling also serves to indicate that certain individuals are criminals. It includes the crime and felony committed by the criminal at hand.

This source is useful in to those individuals entrusted with criminology duties. It makes them aware that criminal profiling is necessary for proper management of criminals. It also serves to show that full data and information of criminals should be taken for effective investigation and establishment of factual information concerning criminals.

Werrett, J, D. (2000). The National DNA Database. Birmingham: UK.

Database forensic puts into action many ways to get criminals. The data base forensic process used may involve many ways of getting the criminals. One of the methods enacted is the DNA testing operation. For the last two years, the Forensic Science Service has established and put into operation a National DNA Database. This operation is meant get criminals who escape after committing their felonies. The data base forensic process involved testing DNA samples of suspected individuals of various crimes. Also, samples were analyzed from stains from gotten from scenes of crime. This shows that the stains were to be analyzed to get the criminal who committed the offense. DNA samples of suspected individuals were tested to prove whether or not they committed the crime they are being suspected of committing.

This source will be useful to those individuals who may be suspecting criminals for committing certain crimes. This is because their DNA samples can be analyzed to prove guilty or innocent of the suspected felonies.

Gill, P, Curran, J, Elliot, K. (2005). A graphical simulation model of the entire DNA process associated with the analysis of short tandem repeat loci. USA.

Database forensic process that deals with DNA analysis provides complete information to DNA and its related tests to arrest criminals. The author of this journal article shows us that there is a prevalent increase in the use of expert system in interpretation of short tandem DNA profiles. It has been proved that this way of getting data from criminal is cumbersome and time-consuming hence invention of the graphical model. This is reference to the Low Copy Number (LCN) applications. The graphical model is used to simulate stochastic variations related to DNA process. From the model, DNA process starts with extraction of sample followed by the preparation of a PCR reaction mixture. This shows that database forensic is becoming complex but faster in DNA process to get information regarding to criminals.

This source will, therefore, be useful to those intellectual individuals dealing with criminal investigations. This source document clearly provides a complex but faster way of DNA process to get information from criminals.

Willuweit, S. (2007). Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): Update. Berlin: Germany.

This source document shows that Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): Update is an application of database forensic process. The update is designed for forensic analysts in their work since it is meant to store the Y chromosome haplotypes from global population. This update is mainly useful to those individuals who are interested in family and historic genetics. Since genetics is the scientific study of passage of genetic materials form parents to their offsprings, forensic analysts get to know genetic characteristics of various families. This knowledge can be used to trap criminals since their family genetic characteristics are known. Forensic analysts understand families with law breakers hence they fall suspects of crimes which happen within their reach.

This source document will be useful since it gives people a clear knowledge about the Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD) update. It also makes people know that family genetics can be useful in tracking criminals.

Rowlingson, R. A Ten Step Process for Forensic Readiness. University of Aston: Birmingham.

This research paper gives a ten step process which an individual should undergo to be for database forensic process. The ten processes outlined in the source document are as follows; define business scenario that require digital evidence, identify available resources and different types of evidence, determine the evidence collection requirement, and establish a capability for securely gathering legally admissible evidence to meet the requirement and establish a policy for secure storage and handling of potential evidence. Other steps include ensuring that monitoring and auditing is targeted to detect and deter major incidents, specifying circumstances when escalation to a full formal investigation is required, training staff, presenting an evidence-based case describing the incident and its impact, and ensuring legal review to facilitate action in response to the incident.

The source document is useful since it gives researchers the ten step process for data base forensic readiness. This serves to prepare and make it known to individuals joining CID that they have to be prepared to be ready for data base forensic process.

Bandelt, H, J, Lahermo, P, Richards, M & V. Macaulay, V. (2001). Detecting errors in mtDNA data by phylogenetic analysis. UK.

The author of this source document claims that some errors may occur on a forensic mtDNA data base. This error may result in wrong establishment of facts concerning criminals. This error may also lead to passing out wrong judgment to suspected criminals. This implies that innocent suspected criminals may be declared guilty while guilty suspected criminals may be declared innocent. This shows that the error has great effect on the judgment passed on criminals. This source document comes up with a way in which the error on a forensic mtDNA data base can be detected to avoid confusion.

This source document will be useful since it gives a way in which the mtDNA error can be detected to avoid confusion and wrong judgment in criminal and civil courts. Researchers and readers can clearly understand the error and the way of detecting it.

There are some weaknesses related to database forensic and its related tools. These weaknesses serve to draw back the efforts put in place, by the use of data base forensic, to investigate or establish facts in courts. The weaknesses bring about limitations to the use of forensic data base in investigating and establishing facts in courts.

Lee, S, Kim, H, Lee, & Lim, J. (2005). Digital evidence collection process in integrity and memory information gathering. Korea University Seoul. South Korea.

The author of this source document brings out a weakness that is linked to data base forensic. The weakness is related to the EnCase that was used globally. Its weakness is that modifications can be made on MDC value of digital evidence. This shows that the MDC value is not standard hence can be adjusted resulting to resulting to errors. This led to the proposal of another counter measure. The counter measure proposed was the MDC public system, public authentication system with PKI and MAC system. This source document is useful since it brings out the weakness of the MDC value and its counter measure proposal.

Leigland, R & W. Krings, W. (2004). A Formalization of Digital Forensics. France.

This source document brings out one of the weakness in data base forensic. The weakness limits investigation and some other ways of finding evidence against criminals. The weakness stated in this source document is the unclear use and bounds of digital evidence in legal proceedings. This means that the current techniques, of digital cameras, may not rigorous enough to be used in the courtroom. This limits evidence that is presented against criminals if recorded by digital devices such as digital cameras.

This source is helpful since it makes clear the weaknesses of data base forensic. Digital evidence may not be allowed during legal proceedings in courtrooms.

Harris, R. (2006). Arriving at an anti-forensics consensus: Examining how to define and control the anti-forensics problem. Purdue University: USA.

According to this source document, there are some anti-forensics problems that act as draw backs to data base forensic. Such problems are some of the weaknesses of data base forensic in investigating and establishing facts concerning criminals. This source is helpful since it shows that anti-forensic problems act as weaknesses of data base forensic.

Newsham, T, Palmer, C, Stamos, A & Burns, J. (2007). Breaking Forensics Software: Weaknesses in Critical Evidence Collection. San Francisco: USA.

According to this source, forensic software break down is a common problem. Such breakdown brings about problems in collection of information to be used as evidence. This results in weakness in critical evidence collection.

Casey, E. (2003). Network traffic as a source of evidence: tool strengths, weaknesses, and future needs. Knowledge Solutions LLC: USA.

The author of this source document mainly focuses on weakness brought about in data base forensic by tools of data base forensic. Since the tools used are not100% effective, they are prone to errors. These errors make data base forensic a defective way of investigating and establishing facts about criminals in criminal and civil courts. This source is, therefore, useful as it informs researchers of the weakness brought in data base forensic b y defective tools used.

Thompson, E. (2005). MD5 collisions and the impact on computer forensics. West Lindon: United States of America.

Thompson concentrates his writing on the weakness of data base forensic caused by MD5 collisions. These MD5 collisions have an impact on data base forensic since it brings about weaknesses in the MD5 hash algorithm. This leads to the general weakness of data base forensic as a process of investigating and establishing facts on criminals in courts. This source document is useful as it grants researchers and readers the chance to discover that MD5 collisions results in weakness of the data base forensic.

Inclusively, there are some disadvantages that come about due to the use of database forensic tools.

Nagesh, A. (2006). Distributed Network Forensics using JADE Mobile Agent Framework. Arizona State University: USA.

Nagesh says that some disadvantages of data base forensic are brought about by architectures in data base forensic. This is because the architectures create network congestion near the forensics. This leads to unavailability of network in such places. Data base forensic tools and devices which use network cannot operate properly in such places due to lack of network. This interferes with collection of data and information to be used as evidence. This source is helpful since it makes researchers and readers be aware of the disadvantage caused by data base forensic architectures.

Haggerty, J, Jones, D, L & Taylor, M. (2008). Forweb: file fingerprinting for automated network forensics investigations. Liverpool John Moores University: UK.

This source admits that there are many disadvantages connected to data base forensic. This is because some ways of data base forensic make use of approaches that use computationally exhaustive statistical measures. Some of these measures are complex in nature posing a problem in proper establishment and investigation of information to be used as evidence. The source is useful since it clearly shows that file printing for automated network forensic investigations may be intensive hence a predicament in data and information collection.

Navarro, P, J, Nickless, B & Winkle, L. (1995). Combining Cisco Net Flow Exports with Relational Database Technology for Usage Statistics, Intrusion Detection, and Network Forensics.

The author of this source document suggests that some of the disadvantages of data base forensic are caused by the tools used. This means that any defective tool used in data base forensic process results in one or more problems. According to her, data can be lost if the back-end SQL data base is unavailable. This implies that the lack of the back-end SQL data base results to data loss. This source is useful since it equips it readers that data will be lost if the back-end SQL data base is unavailable.

Singhal, A & Jajodia, S. (2006). Data warehousing and data mining techniques for intrusion detection systems. Gaithersburg: USA.

The disadvantage of data base forensic explained in this source document bases on data mining and data warehousing techniques. These techniques improve performance of Usability of Intrusion Detection System (IDS). The problem comes with the current IDS since they do not provide support for historical data summarization and analysis. This means that data collected is not supported hence does not have assurance of being true or false. This source document is useful in its full content of the problem caused by the current Usability of Intrusion Detection Systems.

Garfinkel, S, L. (2010). Digital forensics research: The next 10 years. Monterey: USA.

The golden age of computer forensic is quickly coming to an end. This calls for careful handling of data base forensic tools. SQL, for example, requires a standardized careful planning for its handling. This means that some of data base tools are delicate and vulnerable hence requires careful handling. Careless handling of such tools may result in their damage hence loss. This source document is useful since it precisely explains the idea careful planning for data base forensic tools such as the SQL data base.

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